社団法人東京都専修学校各種学校協会
I. International Student Acceptance Policies in Japan and the Current Status II. The Japanese Education System III. Study Abroad in Japan IV. Living in Japan V. Options after Graduation VI. Contact Information VII. List of Graduate Schools, Universities, Professional Training Colleges, 
and Japanese Language Institutes
  II. The Japanese Education System   
  Site Map   
 
 II. The Japanese Education System
1.  The Japanese Education System
  Since World War II, the Japanese school education system has had a 6-3-3-4 structure. That is, students have 6 years of primary education in elementary school, 3 years of lower secondary education in junior high school, and 3 years of upper secondary education in senior high school, for a total of 12 years of school education. After completing their primary and secondary education, students may continue on to an institution of higher education. There are five institutions of higher education in which international students may enroll: (1) graduate schools, (2) universities, (3) junior colleges, (4) specialized training colleges (specialized courses), and (5) colleges of technology. These institutions of higher education are divided into national, public, and private institutions, depending on the organization by which they are managed.
Some universities have both undergraduate and graduate school programs. The ordinary term of undergraduate study is four years (six years for those studying medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, and veterinary medicine), and students earn their bachelor’s degree upon graduation. Graduate schools are usually comprised of a master’s program (2-year term of study) and a doctoral program (5-year term of study). Doctoral programs are divided into an early-term program (2 years, usually referred to as the master’s program) and a late-term program (3 years). Those who complete a master’s program earn a master’s degree, while those who complete a doctoral program earn a doctoral degree.
Junior colleges usually have a term of study of two years, and those who complete the program earn an associate degree.
Specialized training colleges include upper secondary courses as part of the upper secondary education system (upper secondary specialized training schools), specialized courses as part of the higher education system (professional training colleges), and general courses that offer other types of education (specialized training colleges), but international students are eligible to enroll only in specialized courses (professional training colleges). The term of study is two to four years, and students who complete 1,700 hours of course work in a program with a term of study of two or more years can earn the title of “diploma.” Professional training colleges are not research institutions like universities but specialize in teaching practical skills that students will be able to put to use in society.
Academic programs in the fields of design, photography, manga, and animation are more often offered through professional training colleges than universities.
Institutions of Japanese language education are not treated as institutions of higher education but as the school in the miscellaneous category or the equivalent educational institution.
   
  Japanese Education System
 

Notes:

  1. Advanced-diploma holders are deemed qualified for graduate school admission. (It may be possible to advance to a graduate school with other qualifications.)
  2. Only students who have completed two years or more of study in a department that meets certain conditions may transfer from a professional training college to a university.
  3. Only graduates of designated schools certified for university admission may advance from a specialized training school to a university or junior college.
   
 
2.  Characteristics and Education of Japanese Institutions of Higher Education
  Japanese institutions of higher education include universities, junior colleges, colleges of technology, and professional training colleges (specialized courses at specialized training colleges). Nearly 70% of those who graduate from high school continue on to a university, junior college, or professional training college, making Japan one of the most highly educated societies in the world.
These institutions of higher education have the following characteristics.

Characteristics and Education of Japanese Institutions of Higher Education
   
 
Percentage Distribution of Students in Institutions of Higher Education by Major Fields of Study
(FY2012 Data: School Basic Survey by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology)

Characteristics of Each Educational Institution by Ratio of Population

Comparing the percentage distribution of students between universities, junior colleges, and professional training colleges by majoring fields of study, in universities, social sciences such as law, economics, and mercantile come to the top, followed by engineering and humanities such as literature and languages. Junior colleges have home economics, social sciences and education for the top three, while fields of medicine have the most population in professional training colleges followed by fields of culture/general educations and engineering.
By the way, classification of the courses in professional training colleges, universities and junior colleges is not always the same, and educational purposes of each institution also differ. Medical doctor, dental doctor, pharmacist and veterinarian related courses are established only at universities, while cooking, barber and beautician related courses are mainly established at professional training colleges (field of hygienics).

Professional Training Colleges
Universities Junior Colleges
   
【1】 Features and Educational Contents of Professional Training Colleges
 

(1) Four Features of Professional Training Colleges

i) Professional Education in Diverse Fields to Respond to the Industrial Needs
In contrast to universities and junior colleges which focus on the theoretic studies, professional training colleges aim to give useful education in practice. Responding to the needs of the industries, they have established wide-ranged courses. There are quite a few fields where human resource development largely depends on the professional training colleges. The line-up of their curriculums is centered on experiments and practical trainings, and the instructors are well-experienced in the real business world.

ii) Education for Variety of Professional Qualifications is the Main Pillar
Japanese society society is based on “qualifications” and there are a large number of professional qualifications in Japan. Also, the number of various official examinations which have been established in order to upgrade each industry is uncountable. Since professional training colleges aim to respond to the industrial needs, obtaining these qualifications or passing the examinations are one of their main goals.

iii) Awarding the titles of “Diploma” and “Advanced Diploma” and the Possibility to Enter or Transfer to Universities and Graduate Schools
In recent years, professional training colleges have gained its position as part of the institutions of higher education, and students who have completed a course that requires two years or more of study or 1,700 hours or more of total school hours are awarded with the title of “diploma,” which started from the graduates in FY1994. This title is to certify that the student has finished the postsecondary education. Since FY1997, the awarded international students from professional training colleges have a new option of obtaining work visa after graduation, as well as entering universities and junior colleges. Furthermore, students who have graduated from a course that requires two years or more of study or 1,700 hours or more of total school hours have become able to transfer to an undergraduate course at university and such since FY1999.
Since 2006, students, who have completed 4-year programs that satisfy certain conditions, are being awarded the title of “advanced diploma,” which qualifies the students for admission to graduate schools.

iv) New Framework for Enhancing Professional Education—Specialized Courses on Occupational Practices
Additionally, in April 2014, specialized courses on occupational practices—meant to build close collaboration between professional training schools and businesses and business groups and provide more practical and effective professional education—have started. These courses are certified by the Minister of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, and are expected to result in more highly specialized and advanced professionals.

v) Open Institutions of Higher Education Where Various People from Different Social Strata Study Together
More than 90% of students who enter junior colleges are new graduates from upper secondary schools. As for universities, also, more than 90% of the freshmen are either new graduates or those who have graduated from upper secondary schools within one or two years before. On the other hand, the rate of new graduates from upper secondary schools among the enrollment in professional training schools is only about 70%. A quarter of them are business people or graduates from universities and junior colleges. The reasons why the characteristics of students consist of such various age groups and academic backgrounds could be that the term of study is only one or more years, that the students can obtain specialized knowledge and techniques, and that they can also obtain different kinds of professional qualifications. To acquire a more solid foundation in one’s chosen occupational skills, students may re-enroll in a professional training college after graduating from a university or junior college, and thus about 8% of annual enrollment in professional training colleges is comprised of graduates from universities, junior colleges, and colleges of technology.


(2) Educational Contents of Professional Training Colleges

i) Engineering
Technological innovations are progressing rapidly, as symbolized by computers. Professional training colleges of engineering fields are where the engineers are trained to lead the innovations. Every course provides the up-to-date education to produce human resources as immediate workforce. Furthermore, qualification systems have been established in this field, and obtaining the qualifications is one of the goals. Graduates from this field have been active in all kinds of industries in the society to support the “technology-oriented nation: Japan”.
■The related courses include: electrics and electronics, radio engineering/communications, information processing, multimedia, machinery, architecture, civil engineering / surveying, auto mechanics, broadcasting technology, biotechnology, etc.
ii) Agriculture
 There are professional training colleges to train the next-generation farmers and agricultural leaders, and to train gardening and biotechnology engineers. Out of the tendencies in Japan to protect environment and to seek for mental affluence, gardening has become very popular and courses related to florists or gardeners are increasing.
■The related courses include: agriculture, biotechnology, gardening, flower business, etc.
iii) Healthcare
Various kinds of personnel work in the modern hospitals. Beside medical doctors and nurses, there are clinical laboratory technologists and radiological technologists, and some hospitals also have physical therapists and occupational therapists. Professional training colleges of medical fields are where such medical personnel expect medical doctors are trained. Most of medical or clinical occupations require national qualifications. Students in such courses can take the national examinations and obtain necessary licenses before graduation and enter their new career.
■The related courses include: nursing, dental techniques, dental health, clinical laboratory technology, clinical engineering, clinical radiology, rehabilitation, acupuncture/moxacautery/massage, Judo-orthopedics, medical secretary, etc.
iv) Hygien
Cooks, confectioners and nutritionists to produces healthy dietary life or hairdressers and beauticians to play major roles in the total fashion are trained at professional training colleges of this field. Education of hygienic fields largely depends on professional training colleges. Especially, cooks and hairdressers / beauticians related courses are mostly established in the professional training colleges. National qualifications are established for each occupation; therefore, obtaining necessary qualifications is one of the major goals in this field of study.
■The related courses include: cooking, confectionary, nutrition, barber, beautification, esthetics, makeup, etc.
v) Education / Social Welfare
Experts in nursing care for elderly and the disabled as well as preschool educators are trained in this field of study. Education is the foundation of a nation and good teachers with sophisticated professional knowledge and in-depth humanity are always desired. At the same time, training of social welfare experts is accelerated in this aging society. Also, importance of leaders for sociophysical activities or life-long education is increasing.
■ The related courses include: preschool teacher, nursery teacher, care worker, social welfare, sociophysical, etc.
vi) Practical Commercial Business
The business society consists of various kinds of professionals and experts. These professionals and experts are trained at professional training colleges for practical commercial business. There are many courses to provide practical education that can be in use at work immediately. Business sites are getting more and more sophisticated and complicated. Because of that, many corporations have no more room to take time to educate enough human resource inside, and instead, they seek for people who are already well trained to be able to work immediately. Therefore, they keenly look at “what the candidate can do” at recruitment and deciding treatment, and professional training college graduates with various practical skills are very active in the front line.
■ The related courses include: accounting / bookkeeping, business, secretary, hotel / tourism, information processing, realty, etc.
vii) Fashion / Home Economics
Leaders of fashion industry are trained at professional training colleges in this field. These schools have produced many excellent human resources such as designers, pattern makers, stylists, fashion journalists, sewing specialist, and fashion advisors. Needless to say, Japanese fashion industry, which is known as the world fashion leader, has been energized by the graduates from these professional training colleges.
■The related courses include:dressmaking, fashion design, fashion business, kimono, knitting, etc.
viii) Culture / General Educations
This field includes a variety of courses. To take arts for example, while art-related course at universities and junior colleges focus on fine arts, professional training colleges rather put more weight on commercial arts. They establish practical curriculums to respond to the industrial needs to train human resources as immediate workforce. Each course is strongly connected with the industries and graduates are active in many many different industries.
■The related courses include: language, design, photography, arts, publicity / mass media, broadcasting / theater, music, physical education, animal management, etc.
 
【2】 Features and Educational Contents of Universities
 

(1)Three Features of Universities

i) At the forefront of academic research, fostering talented leaders
As centers of scholarship, Japanese universities aim to provide a high level of education and expertise. Contrary to professional training colleges which are focused on practical education for employment, universities are characterized by their emphasis on theory and research. The ultimate goal of universities is to contribute to the development of society by discovering and cultivating new theories and technologies and offering their results to the society. At the same time, universities are committed to developing well educated and insightful human resources by combining highly specialized education with general education, which covers a wide range of subjects.

ii) Learning styles of in-depth study in specialized fields
A four-year university is generally divided into two courses. For the first two years, a student can gain a broad range of knowledge in a general education course. Then, for the third and fourth years, a student engages in a closer investigation of one's main subject in a specialty course. A student who has advanced to a specialty course decides on a research theme and enters a seminar group with a small number of students. A university professor who teaches a seminar has two faces: one of a researcher and another of an educator. Through numerous discussions with students at the seminar, a professor supports the students on their independent research studies.

iii) An university degree as a wide window into the world
Many Japanese corporations indicate "educational background" as one of their criteria for employment. Most companies have their doors open to "university graduates," except for technical positions. Recently, Japanese corporations have started to place more importance on ability than records, and thus, their tendency to overemphasize educational background is decreasing. However, when it comes to employment, the tendency is still quite persistent. Especially in case of employing executive trainees, “university graduate” is usually the requirement.


(2) Educational Contents of Universities

i) The humanities
It is an academic discipline attempting to understand the essence of humanity by studying human mind and behavior from broad points of view. Included in the discipline are subjects such as: languages as means of expression and communication, history as a way of understanding the process of human development, philosophy and religion for pursuing the better life, and culture and civilization as products of humanity. Students go into various occupations including professorship and research.
<Available subjects>
Philosophy, religious studies, Japanese literature, foreign languages, history, archeology, geography, psychology, cultural studies, library information science, and others.

ii) The social sciences
It is an academic discipline attempting to realize a better society by studying social structures and mechanisms and examining various social phenomena. Many subjects deeply related to business such as economy and commerce are provided. Students can develop intellectual horizons useful for any kind of occupation, including specialized professions such as lawyers and management consultants.
<Available subjects>
Law, political science, economy, commercial science, business administration, social studies, social welfare, tourism, information studies, and etc.

iii) The natural sciences
It is an academic discipline attempting to contribute to the development of scientific technology by studying various phenomena in the natural world. Many subjects such as mathematics and science (biology) are being taught from elementary education. However, the level of contents taught at universities is very high at the forefront of each field.
<Available Subjects>
Mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, earth science, and etc.

iv) Engineering
It is an academic discipline attempting to study the knowledge and technology of “making things,” such as systems, tools, and facilities, to enrich a society and make it function more conveniently. In addition to providing skills for “making things,” engineering programs at universities are involved with the latest research in scientific fields which evolve everyday. This is the major difference from engineering courses at professional training colleges. Many students go into research and development professions after graduation.
<Available subjects>
Mechanical engineering, telecommunications engineering, electrical and electronic engineering, information engineering, civil engineering, environmental engineering, architecture, applied science, applied physics, applied chemistry, nuclear engineering, metallurgy, materials engineering, marine and aeronautical engineering, management engineering, biological engineering, natural recourse engineering, system and control engineering, emerging areas in chemistry, and etc.

v) Agriculture
As shown by the prosperity of biotechnology, the academic discipline of agriculture sets the trend of a new era. The central research is focused on ensuring stable supplies and efficient use of food resources, in addition to protecting ecosystems by recycling and preserving natural environment. There are big expectations from the society in this field.
<Available subjects>
Agriculture, agricultural chemistry, agricultural engineering, agricultural economy, veterinary medicine, animal husbandry, fisheries science, forestry, applied biological science, biological resource science, and etc.

vi) Medicine / public health
Well known departments of medicine, dentistry, and pharmacy are generally 6- year-programs. However, as community care and team medicine become more popular, there is an increasing number of other departments. These programs offer training for medical and public health professionals, such as occupational therapists and licensed nursing care workers. These 4-year-programs are geared for providing a high level of medical knowledge and a profound sense of humanity.
<Available subjects>
Medicine, dentistry, pharmacy, nursing science, public health and hygiene, life science, health science, sports science, nursing and welfare, rehabilitation, occupational therapy, and etc.

vii) Home economics and domestic science
It is an academic discipline that teaches theory and technology necessary for creating a healthy and comfortable living environment. It is a comprehensive study of our living environment starting from food, clothing, and shelter. It includes many themes with social interests, such as ecological problems and prevention of lifestyle-related illness by women. The areas of study are quite extensive.
<Available subjects>
Domestic science, life science, food science, clothing science, residential science, nutritional science, and etc.

viii) Education
Departments of education provide programs for people who wish to obtain teaching licenses and become school teachers. In addition to preparing students for the license exam, university programs emphasize “pedagogy,” which investigates the goals and systems of education. The area of study is broad and includes various academic disciplines such as philosophy, psychology, sociology and biology.
<Available subjects>
Education, teacher training, physical education, child science, preschool education, and etc.

ix) Arts
It is an academic discipline to pursue artistic creativity and technology of expression. It aims to nurture creators and artists in every possible field of arts, including visual art, design, and music. Students can not only gain practical skills but also learn theories to support their artistic expressions.
<Available subjects>
Visual art, design, music, photography, film, broadcasting, theater, literature, beauty, and etc.

x) Interdisciplinary study
Many Japanese universities are going through educational reforms currently. As a result, traditional departments and programs are being renovated. The idea of "liberal arts" is starting to be infiltrated, encouraging cross-disciplinary studies across the borders of arts and science and giving birth to various new programs beyond the usual system of academic disciplines. There are many inventive approaches to teaching broad fields of study, such as exchanging school credits between different universities. This way, students can learn severall disciplines systematically.
<Available subjects>
General education, integrated science, human studies, international relations, media science, integrated political science, environmental information studies, social community studies, communication studies, and etc.

   
【3】 Features and Educational Contents of Junior Colleges
  As opposed to universities which put an emphasis on academic research, junior colleges are more focused on providing practical education useful for work. A program at a junior college is usually 2 years in duration, but some programs in medical and nursing fields are 3 years. About one third of junior colleges are for women. Over half of available courses are in the fields of human studies, domestic science, education, and social studies.
   
【4】 Features and Educational Contents of Professional Graduate Schools
  Professional graduate schools are master's programs aimed at training businesspersons with advanced professional knowledge. Up to recently, master’s programs at graduate schools were for training researchers. But professional graduate schools were established in response to the demand for professional businesspersons following the advancement of social economy. The term of study is one or two years. Admission requirements include graduation from university or possession of the “advanced diploma.”
   
【5】 Features and Educational Contents of Graduate Schools
 

Graduate schools offer two-year master's degree programs and three-year doctoral degree programs, but graduate schools of medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, and veterinary medicine typically offer only a four-year doctoral degree program (no master's degree programs). Generally speaking, a student who has not earned a master’s degree may not continue on to a doctoral degree program, but if the student is deemed to have achieved a level of achievement equivalent to that of a master's degree, the student may be admitted to a doctoral program without a master's degree. Some graduate schools refer to the program for earning a master's degree as the “first-stage doctoral degree program,” and the program for earning a doctoral degree as the “second-stage doctoral degree program.” This is because the master's and doctoral degree programs are linked in such a way that students can follow a consistent program of study and research in their chosen field.
A master's degree will be awarded to those who complete a master's degree program and a doctoral degree will be awarded to those who complete a doctoral degree program.

(1) Features of Graduate Schools

  1. Graduate schools are typically divided up into fields of specialization.

  2. Graduate schools are divided into programs aimed at cultivating researchers and programs aimed at cultivating highly skilled professionals (known as professional graduate schools, such as the law school and graduate school of accounting).

  3. Most graduate schools are positioned above their respective undergraduate faculties of a university, but some independent graduate programs exist that do not have related undergraduate organizations beneath them. There are also some graduate school universities comprised solely of independent graduate schools.

  4. Holding a master’s degree or doctoral degree may be established as a condition for employment by a particular company, or as a condition for working as a university professor or a research institute researcher.

(2) Educational Programs of Graduate Schools
 Many universities have a variety of different graduate school programs, but those can be divided into professional graduate schools and research-oriented graduate schools.

  1. Professional Graduate Schools
    Programs in law, public administration, business, intellectual property, accounting, education, health and welfare, clinical psychology, IT content, etc.

  2. Graduate Schools (Research-Oriented)
    Programs in science and engineering; literature, the humanities, and anthropology; foreign languages; sociology and the social sciences; law, economic and business administration, and commercial science; international relations; home economics, physical education, and art; biology and the natural sciences; and medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, agronomy, and veterinary medicine

* In addition to full-time students, universities and graduate schools have systems to accommodate non-matriculated students, auditing students, and research students. To obtain a “college student” visa as a non-matriculated or auditing student, the student must attend 10 or more hours of class per week.

Non-matriculated students: Can take specific classes and receive academic credit
Auditing students: Can audit specific classes but will not receive academic credit
Research students:
(1) Individuals who are in Japan to conduct short-term research activities, who are not trying to earn academic credits
(2) Individuals who are in Japan as short-term exchange students on an exchange program between universities.
(3) Individuals participating in a program to prepare for admission into a full-time graduate school program
* Many universities will admit students based only on a document review.

Because the entrance exam for research students often consists only of a document review and they can thus be admitted into an academic program before arriving in Japan, students may come to Japan, having obtained permission to be admitted to a university as a research student, and then later, may take the entrance exam for a master’s or doctoral degree program after studying Japanese and other subjects of specialization. Some graduate schools allow students to take the entrance exam directly, but others prefer that the student proceed through a program as a “research student” first. Be sure to ask your preferred school about their requirements.

   
【6】 Features and Educational Content of Japanese Language Schools
   (Institutes for Japanese Language Education)
 

Japaneseschools offer preparatory courses for students wishing to continue their education at a professional training college, junior college, university, or graduate school, as well as general courses for students with various objectives aiming to study Japanese. Some preparatory courses also offer classes in subjects other than Japanese, such as math, general studies, and science (preliminary subjects).
Japanese language schools are schools for studying Japanese; students who attend these schools do not earn a degree. Japanese language schools often offer multiple courses and programs, so be sure to select the course that best suits your goals.

(1) The Number of Institutes for Japanese Language Education
The number of institutes which are accredited by the Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education as appropriate to provide Japanese language education under the good educational conditions is 359 as of the end of March 2015.

(2) The Number of Students
The number of students learning at institutes for Japanese language education (with “student” visa) is 43,667 from 116 countries/regions as of July 1, 2014. China (16,118) sends the most, followed by Vietnam (13,758), Nepal (4,779), South Korea (2,081) and Taiwan (1,837).

Number of Students by Country / Region

China 16,118   Sri Lanka 619
Vietnam 13,758 Thailand 580
Nepal 4,779 Myanmar 520
South Korea 2,081 Others 3,344
Taiwan 1,871 Total 43,667

(3) Courses at Japanese Language Education and University Preparatory Courses
Most institutes of Japanese language education offer university preparatory courses for those who wish to pursue higher levels of education (university, professional training college, etc.) as well as general courses for students who do not intend to pursue higher education after graduating.
Currently, about 90% of the pre-college students belong to the university preparatory courses while around 10 % to the general courses. Both courses include one-year, 1.5-year, and two-year courses depending on the curriculum, but most of the students in the university preparatory courses take 1.5-year or two-year courses (about 70%.) In the general courses, most students, approximately 60% of them,take two-year courses.

Percentage of Students According to Course and Required Period (July 2014)

University 
Preparatory Course
  General Course
1 year 5.1% 1 year 2.4%
1 year 3 months 6.0% 1 year 3 months 0.5%
1 year 6 months 20.2% 1 year 6 months 1.5%
1 year 9 months 12.3% 1 year 9 months 1.0%
2 years 43.2% 2 years 7.5%
Subtotal 87.0% Subtotal 13.0%

Most institutes mainly provide one-year courses with 800 hours of requirement and in different levels from basic to advanced depending on each student’s level of Japanese education. For those who wish to go to universities or professional training colleges, each institute makes effort to provide preparation classes by developing teaching materials for “Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students” and so on.
Some Institutes for Japanese language education also offer some optional subjects other than Japanese language. The most popular subject is general studies, followed by mathematics, short paper writing, English, and Japanese affairs.

(4) After Graduating from Institutes for Japanese Language Education
In the last few years, about 70% of the graduates from institutes for Japanese language education proceeded to Japanese universities, graduate schools, or professional training colleges while about 30% of them either went home, got married, or found job.
Among the students who proceeded to higher education in 2013, 8,324 went to professional training colleges, 5,198 to universities, 2,221 to graduate schools, and 148 to junior colleges. Generally, international students who go to universities and professional training colleges learn Japanese language at institutes for Japanese language education for one to two years before going to higher education.
Out of privately financed international students at universities and professional training colleges, many of them have graduated from institutes for Japanese language education accredited by the Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education.

Number of Graduates from Institutes for Japanese Language Education to Go to Japanese Higher Education (Graduates in FY2013)

University 5,198 (32.1%)
Graduate School 2,221 (13.8%)
Junior College 148 (0.9%)
College of Technology 71 (0.4%)
Post Secondary Courses
(Professional Training Colleges)
8,324 (51.5%)
Miscellaneous Schools, etc. 217 (1.3%)
Total 16,179 (100%)

(5) The Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students (EJU)
The Examination for Japanese University Admission for International Students has been employed since FY2002. This examination is implemented by the Japan Student Services Organization (JASSO) in order to evaluate Japanese language skills and basic academic achievement of international students who wish to enter university etc. in Japan. The examination is held twice a year, in June and November, both in Japan and overseas.
For those in liberal arts courses, the tested subjects are: Japanese as a Foreign Language (125 min.), general knowledge (80 min.), and mathematics (80 min.); and for those in natural sciences courses, they are: Japanese as a Foreign Language (125 min.), science (choice of two from physics, chemistry, and biology: 80 min.), and mathematics (80 min.).

(6) Compensation System for Students in Institutes for Japanese Language Education
The Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education is creating a compensation system with a low insurance premium in case students in institutes for Japanese language need emergency money when (1) they became injured or (2) sick, (3) broke other’s belongings by mistake or injured someone else, or (4) needed to bring their family over to Japan while hospitalized and so on.

   
 

What is the Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education?
The Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education (APJLE) was established in 1989 to examine and certify the quality of institutes of Japanese language education, ensuring that international students who come to Japan to study Japanese would be able to do so with confidence. The association has also played a role in promoting the acceptance of qualified students and improving the quality of Japan's institutes of language education through various initiatives in such areas as instructor training and the development of teaching materials, the implementation of overseas student fairs and seminars, the development and implementation of a system for certifying test results and other items from uniform university admission exams conducted at Vietnamese universities, and the expansion of scholarships and other forms of student support. The APJLE has been certified by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology; Ministry of Justice; and Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and is operated with guidance from those ministries.
In June 2003, the charter member council of the APJLE formulated guidelines regarding the acceptance of international students by institutes of Japanese language education. These guidelines—which constitute voluntary ethical standards and behavioral guidelines that institutes of Japanese language education adhere to—were established to promote a proper understanding of those institutions and to help improve the level of trust that Japanese and overseas society places in them.

Examination and Certification Services
Institutes of Japanese language education come in many different forms and are established for a diverse range of purposes and students.
Some of the institutions that offer Japanese language education are positioned as specialized training colleges or unclassified schools, but many are not positioned as either.
The examination and certification services offered by the APJLE were first conducted in 1989. The examination standards were based on the standards regarding the management of Japanese language education facilities formulated by the survey research cooperation council under the Ministry of Education (now the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology) in December 1988. These standards contained content equivalent to that of the standards for specialized training colleges and unclassified schools.
Institutions wishing to be certified by the APJLE are examined to determine whether they can legitimately be categorized as institutions that provide Japanese language education. An examination committee comprised of Japanese language education experts and other experienced scholars conducts a rigorous examination of each applicant institution. To maintain and improve the quality of our institutes of Japanese language education, institutions that receive certification are reexamined every three years when they apply for the renewal or revision of their certification.
Thus, international students who come from overseas to study Japanese can rest assured that the institutes of Japanese language education that have undergone the APJLE’s examination and certification process are reputable and well managed.

Association for the Promotion of Japanese Language Education
URL http://www.nisshinkyo.org/
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http://www.nisshinkyo.org/search/index_e.html
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